The author summarizes the results of his report at the UNESCO Expert Meeting on the theme “Traditional Sports and Games of the Interactive Atlas of Cultural Interactions along the Silk Roads” on 4-5 December 2018 in Ashgabat, Turkmenistan. There are two main approaches to the study of traditional sports and games – theoretical and praxeological, allowing to rethink the main problems of research on the ontogeny and phylogenies of traditional sports and games on the Silk Roads. A typical cultural memory trap in this case is the fact that their origin is associated today with the peoples who declared them as an object of their intangible cultural heritage. Gaming traditions in the extensive material of historical sources appear before us as an integral part of the rites of male initiation, their existence is associated with the rites of the festive culture of the solar-lunar calendar. A typology of traditional games is presented. The description of traditional games in epos, literature and scientific works allows us to speak about their high cultural significance, thanks to which they are added to the UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage List. The actual problem of sportization of traditional sports and games leads to a loss of authenticity as a result of the fact that they are held as sports competitions with time measurements unthinkable for traditional culture, awards of points and divisions into weight and age categories. But the main threat is represented by the so-called “traditional game festivals”, which use the irrelevant formula of the IOC Olympiad multisport games, resulting in a profanation of the idea of Olympism, replaced by the cultivation of pseudo-Olympic games with a program from a set of primitive competitions, exemplified by the World Nomad Games. A critical attitude to a rich empirical material allows us to conclude that the sustainable development of traditional games is possible as a subject of event tourism – the most dynamically developing cluster of the world economy.
ethnosport, event tourism, intangible culture heritage, sport, traditional sports and games.
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The article is a critical review of different tournaments systems round (playoff format, single-elimination, round-robin, Swiss-system and challenge). The analysis is based on the data obtained by the author in the course of field research in the Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous region (The Kuhistani Badakhshan Autonomous Region) of the Republic of Tajikistan in March 2012. The object of the research is the practice of organizing tournaments of traditional sports and games, and the modern experience of ethnosport tournaments held in the system of challenge – Russian wall fistfighting. The main goal of the article is to identify possible directions for improving the quality of human capital using ethnosport methods and tools. Conversion of tools and methods is a recognized and important method of mutual enrichment of individual areas of sports activity. The most promising in the case of traditional sports and games is the scaling of their features, including systems for arranging competitive activities. Using direct full transfer methods or tools, it is not best way to achieve a significant positive effect due to a significant quantitative and qualitative difference between the audience of the traditional society and the post-industrial society. This critical review showed that the use of the traditional system of arranging competitive activities can significantly increase the number of winners in each tournament. An example of a traditional tournament system is given, in which more than half of the total number of participating fighters have won the titles of winners. In addition, the opportunity to create the effect of direct involvement in the victory of other athletes, the results of performances which do not allow them to claim the title of the winner. The article concluded that in the majority of current systems of arranging competitions there is one winner, which leads to the accumulating pessimism and frustration of other participants, reducing the social effect of the event. As an alternative, the innovative experience of the World Ethnosport is given, which implements the system of organizing the World Series Ethnosport Challenge tournaments based on traditional approaches.
ethnosport, gushtingiri, system of competitions arranging, traditional wrestling, traditional sports and games, wall fistfighting.
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The article discusses research of the world’s strongmen movements genesis. The research covers historical aspects of creation and establishing of strongmen sport, as well as information about David Webster who personally contributed to the formation of strongmen. The article also contains comparative analysis of institutional forms of strongmen movement – IFSA, show «The World`s Strongest Man», a yearly festival of Arnold Schwarzenegger «Arnold Sports Festival», world’s series of the World Strongman Cup under the auspieces of the World Strongman Cup Federation (Аustria). Countries, holding strongmen sport most often are outlined. It is established, that in the genesis of strongmen sports, the continuation of traditional strongmen competitions, available in most of the world’s cultures, is clearly shown. For now, World’s strongmen movement, consists of scattered commercial companies and sports associations, and doesn’t have any leading structure. Such a situation opens a window of opportunity for the World Strongmen Federation to become a leader of world’s strongmen movement. Additional opportunities are offered by the fact, that strongman is very likely to become the recognized sport, because demonstrated by the high interest of athletes and the public towards such competitions, as well as a high and stable interest from TV stations. Diversification of the world’s strongmen movement on the basis of strategic partnership between WSF and Word Ethnosport expressed in the creation of a new discipline – ethnosport-strongmen, creates a key driver for sustainable development. The launch of joint project – The World Series of Ethnosport Challenge tournaments in 2018 demonstrated the exiting demand towards such projects around the world. The main advantage of joint development of ethnosport and strongmen sport is that joint actions help to solve problems. For example, non-existence of famous athletes in traditional games of ethnosport is compensated by "the strongest athletes". Additionally, typical strength exercises in strongmen add a unique aspect to traditional games.
Arnold classic, Ethnosport Challenge, strongmen, traditional sports and games, weightlifting.
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The following article will first consider the similarities and the differences of the Swiss and the Scottish concepts of folk culture, then the author will give a thorough overview of the Scottish Highland Games and their Swiss equivalents today, before examining the origins of either in order to discuss the genuineness of these events and their acceptance and role in their respective communities. For providing a broad and exact overview, the origins of the various athletic disciplines of the ethnic sports competitions in question will also be considered. In the Scottish case, the primary question here is in how far Highland Games are still genuinely Gaelic or whether they have ever been thus, and whether there are any Highland Games that are true to the pre-nineteenth century origins of most athletic disciplines featured. In the Swiss case, it will be shown that the originally staged herdsfolk games have indeed been accepted by the wider Swiss German community and are today largely arranged for locals and less so for tourists, though the latter are welcome. These are the Scottish Highland Games as hosted by various towns and villages all over Scotland, its traditional diaspora overseas and beyond – as will be discussed in the course of the text – and the Swiss Älpler-und-Schwingfeste (alpine herdsfolk festivals featuring traditional Swiss wrestling), the largest of which is the Trachten-und Alphirtenfest (festival of traditional Swiss regional costume and upland herdsfolk) at Unspunnen in the vicinity of Interlaken in the canton of Berne. It is also known as the Unspunnenfest. When the author first heard about the latter event during a holiday in Switzerland in 1987, seeing the pictures of the last Unspunnenfest six years ago, he found some of its features quite similar to the Scottish Highland Games with which he was already familiar having then travelled to Scotland regularly since 1981. Having now lived in Scotland for a whole decade and matured into a fully-blown scholar of Scottish Gaelic language and culture and being equally knowledgeable in Scottish Lowland culture, yet also familiar with and interested in Swiss culture, the author decided to contribute to this project his study of the role of Highland Games and Älplerspiele in today’s Scottish and Swiss communities.
Ethnosport, Highland Games, Schwingen, Traditional Sports and Games, Unspunnenfest.
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The results of the research are submitted in this article were presented by the author at a meeting of UNESCO experts on the topic “Traditional Games and Sports of the Interactive Atlas of Cultural Interactions along the Silk Road” on December 4-5, 2018 in Ashgabat, Turkmenistan. Today, for the preservation of traditional sports and games, there are two organizational models – ethnosport and ethnic styled sport. To assess the socio-economic efficiency of these two models, we developed a new approach and conducted a comparative analysis based on it. The relevance of our study is due to the fact that one of the aspects of the increased need for evaluating the performance of sport non-profit organizations is increasing struggle for resources, including those allocated in the form of government grants and sponsorship of transnational corporations. Although profit is not the main purpose of the existence of non-profit organizations, the evaluation of the activities and projects of non-profit organizations should be carried out on the basis of other indicators and methods. Here it should be especially noted that the methods and technologies for assessing social efficiency are in theory much less studied compared to the economic and financial assessment of commercial companies. The study of existing evaluation methods led the authors to develop their own approach to determining social efficiency and, on its basis, a comparative analysis of ethnosport and ethnic styled sport. The main research tool was the search engine Google. The study is based on the calculation of a number of indices reflecting various aspects of the socio-economic efficiency of the models under consideration. Both models are implemented by non-governmental organizations, to assess the effectiveness of their activities, the Weisbrod Publicness Index was calculated, and then the social profitability index of their activities was calculated. As the main indicator reflecting the socio-economic efficiency of the models, the assessment was based on three criteria: a sport / ethnosport promotion index, a federation promotion index, an event promotion index. According to the results of the study, the authors came to the conclusion that the model that provides the most social effectiveness in promoting traditional sports and games is ethnosport, which has clear advantages over ethnic styled sport.
ethnosport, promotion effectiveness, social efficiency, traditional sports and games, Weisbrod’s publicness index.
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