International Journal of
Ethnosport and Traditional Games Vol.2 (2) 2019

Alexey Kylasov
Habitus of Martial Arts in Russia

The article presents the results of a study of the habit of martial arts in Russia. The main trends in the development of martial arts and emerging contradictions are identified, factors for the steady growth of interest in them in society are identified. With an appeal to modern studies of myths and collective memory, a dichotomy has been established in the development of Russian martial arts: the pseudo-folklore (fakelore) project “Russian styles”, which is the author’s school of martial arts, is opposed by the folklore project for the restoration of authentic competitions “Russian Games”. "Russian styles" were born under the influence and in the image of oriental martial arts. “Russian Games” is the restoration project of traditional sports and games based on historical sources by learned anthropologists, cultural scientists, historians, folklorists and ethnographers. Meanwhile, in the mass perception of both projects represents a single phenomenon of “somatic nationalism”, which was determined in the analysis of a number of sociological studies. It is important to note that Russian martial arts are still noticeably inferior in popularity to other martial arts, among which Olympic sports dominate, as well as sports of members of the Global Association of International Sports Federations (GAISF). The development of Russian martial arts was strongly influenced by martial arts, whose enthusiasm is due to the European consciousness of Russians and therefore fits into the context of European orientalism. At the same time, the development of the martial arts of their people is perceived as useful and is determined by faith in the covenants of their ancestors, and the martial arts of other nations cause fears growing against the backdrop of patriotism. It is concluded that the steady growth of the tourism potential of the main event of Russian martial arts - the Atmanov’s Kulachki traditional games, included in the Register of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of the Russian Federation and owned the Russian Events Award, corresponds to the global trend of growing interest in such events, many of which have been included to the UNESCO ICH List.

ethnosport, combat sports, traditional wrestling, traditional combats, traditional sports and games.

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Eugeniy Bakhrevskiy
History and actual image of oil wrestling

Turkish “oil wrestling” (yağlı güreş) has a great popularity in Turkey, spread in some neighboring countries (Bulgaria, Macedonia, Albania), in Western Europe and Japan there are amateur clubs of this wrestling. That is complex system of accompanying rituals and attributes, it is based on ancient folklore tradition, and in modern conditions it became an important symbol of Turkish national consciousness. An Oil wrestling long enough became a subject of scientific interest; there is a series of books on its history and a lot of papers. At the same time caring publicists note that still we don’t have a satisfactory scientific description of oil wrestling, neither in Turkish nor in other languages. The article presents the results of a study of historical development of oil wrestling, listed in the UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage. Symbolic and ritual elements of nowadays oil wrestling and Kırkpınar festival (ağa, cazgır, peşrev, kıspet etc.) were analyzed. Kırkpınar festival came into being in the end of the 19th century, in the period of wrestlers’ tekke system decay, when the well-known masters from Edirne and Constantinople began to participate to the local festival on Hıdırellez, after that it became very popular even on national level. Simultaneously many legends were attached to the festival, and historians of 1920-30th years linked to it the names of state figures and events, relating to conquest of Balkans by Ottomans. The place of oil wrestling among the other traditional wrestling styles in Turkey is shown, the version of its origin was proposed. At the same time, when, how and under what influence oil wrestling was formed, remains a mystery, because nobody but Turks preserved this tradition. A survey of legends and historical information about saint patrons of oil wrestling Sarı Saltık, Kızıl Deli Sultan, Mahmud Pir Yar-ı Veli is given. The translation from the Ottoman language of parts of “Travels book of Evliya Çelebi” concerning oil wrestling is given. Many cultural spheres in Muslim civilization (poetry, music, fine art, medicine, craft technologies etc.) frequently develop within Tasavvuf (Sufism) or use its infrastructure. One of its most important features is the developed tradition of knowledge and mastery transfer within a “teacher-student” system. It is the perfectly suitable feature of Tasavvuf for preservation and development of cultural traditions, including martial arts. Practically all Turkish authors writing about wrestlers’ tekke insist that they were “sport clubs” of their time, that the religious terminology was used in them “according to habits of the time”, and totally deny the religious component in the life of these institutions and in the system of wrestlers’ (and also archers’, mace fighters’ etc.) education. I think that it is a typical misconception of researches, operating the concepts of secular-atheistic world of the 20th-21st centuries, and transferring these concepts to the traditional society field. A survey of oil wrestling at Ottoman sultans court is given. After the destruction of the Ottoman Empire oil wrestling became one of the symbols of a new, nationalistic Turkey. A survey of problems caused by sportization of oil wrestling during the last decades of the 20th and beginning of the 21st centuries is given.

ethnosport, oil wrestling, Ottoman empire, Sufi brotherhoods, traditional wrestling.

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Joan Orti Ferreres
An Internal and External Logical Analysis of Sant Mateu Traditional Games Played in the XX Century

Nowadays traditional games are disappeared of our streets and places. Social changes don’t help to keep the traditional games and the ludic culture: streets are paved; the number of children for family is fewer; technologic develop; and so on. Young people prefer other activities to spend their free time as sports, music, video games, social media. These activities and the social changes are modifying the ludic culture and the traditions of the people in the Maestrat Region and in other places in Spain. In this article we present a study about the traditional games and festive activities in a town called Sant Mateu (Spain). We studied these using visual sources, writing sources and, principally, oral sources. In order to find the ludic culture, we designed a questionnaire with internal and external logical questions. Internal logical asks about rules and regulations of the games and external logical asks about the social and cultural elements. With this questionnaire, we interviewed 48 people (26 men and 22 women) from 30 to 85 years. We interviewed people individually although, sometimes, we used discussion groups and workshops. Thus, after research, we found that the main source is the oral source. Visual sources and writing sources contributed with little information. It is so because until after middle XXth century people didn’t use usually them. We obtained 124 traditional games which have been played during the XX century: 61 games were played by 1st generation; 18 games by the 2nd generation; 35 games by the 3rd. Moreover, we found 10 games that were played in festivities. In conclusion, we may establish that research of ludic culture is necessary to find and protect this intangible heritage, to know the relationship between people and traditional spaces of the games. With the qualitative information of this study, we wrote a book about the ludic culture and traditional games of the Sant Mateu town. This book was edited by Onada Editions and it’s called in Valencian languages “Els jocs I la tradició lúdica de Sant Mateu al segle XX” (Ortí, 2011). Translation to English would be: “Games and ludic tradition of Sant Mateu to XX century”.

ludic culture, traditional games, oral sources, questionnaire, praxeology.

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Andrey Yarovoj
Don Cossack Ethnosport: From Cossack Traditional Games to Cossack Show

This article will examine the evolution of Cossack traditional games. First, a brief reference will be given on what the Don Cossack are in ethnic terms today, their numbers and how Soviet power influenced them. The concept of "culture of neo-Cossack" will be proposed. Particular attention is paid to the traditional sports of the Cossack, their substantial side, and ritual significance. It will be shown how, with the regulation of Cossack life, the competitions took on an increasingly paramilitary form, turning from all-Russian holidays of the people calendar into military (regimental and camp) exercises. In the description of the programme of traditional games, special attention is paid to equestrian competitions. After the events connected with the revolutionary upheavals, the Civil War and the military intervention of 1918–1922, and the subsequent process of dissolving, and, according to some estimates, the genocide of the Don Cossack, the degradation of competitive culture began, it went into the category of children’s games and collective memory, the manifestation of which could be observed only at the level of closely related relations. In the Soviet period (in 1936), a partial rehabilitation of the Cossack took place, but at that time, traditional culture began to undergo changes associated with a radical change in lifestyle and everyday life – collective farm construction began, a cultural revolution took place. After the collapse of the USSR in the 1990s the process of the revival of the Cossack begins, which led to new forms of competition, often having nothing to do with traditional games, they served as indicative imitations of Shermitsy. In the work, special attention is paid to the symbolic side of the Cossack competitions, their role in the formation of the ethnic worldview and the preservation of ethnomotricité.

Don Cossack, ethnosport, ethnomotricité, neo-Cossack, Shermitsy, traditional sports and games.

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Fabio José Cardias-Gomes
Ethnosport Psychology: A model of traditional games of indigenous people of the Eastern Amazon

The present study intended to develop the ethnosport social psychology, oriented on indigenous corporality and traditional sport and games of them, with log race detailed research of the Timbira people (macro Jê language) in Eastern Amazon. It was hypothesized that log race is an ethnosport that can be consider under the Amazonian perspectivism, while the body making of Timbira people is made by this practice involves the common participation of all members of the community. Such practices are adopted the concepts of: a) ethnosport as conceived by Kylasov; b) the modern experience of traditional sports and games events of Siberians who have much in common with Brazilian, especially on the Timbira log race; c) the Amazon-Amerindian perspectivism and/or the multinaturalism versus multiculturalism originated in the concept of Viveiros-de-Castro, as well his d) Anti-Narcissistic critics, founding echo in post-Jungian and Deleuze-Guattari´s postulates. A study to establish the social psychology of ethnosport was conducted with an appeal to a qualitative method, observation included during many visits in the last five years, 2015–2019, in Timbira communities around the Indigenous Land of Timbira in Maranhão State. As example of included observation was analysis, it was discussed the form of log racing as remarking of the collective suffering, inside the cycle of mourning rituals of Timbira´s communities. This study inheres leaded us to conclude that we are witnessing the increasing, emerging and urgency of an “new” ethnosport imaginaries, with all its pedagogical potency, or tendency, to an alternative way facing ethnocentric and Euro-colonized Anglo-Saxon sport and its body and human concepts. This itself is enough to challenge myself to find theoretical-methodological tools in a psychosocial-interdisciplinary approach to contribute to the increasing phenomenon of world ethnosport studies, in order to promote it and sustainable development.

Amazonian-Amerindian Perspectivism, Ethnosport Psychology, Indigenous Peoples, Multinaturalism, Traditional Sports and Games.

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